- Human cells
- EU law
To encourage and maximise the use of human biological material in Europe, the European Commission instigated a main Directive in 2004 (Directive 2004/23/EC), four technical ones in 2006 (Commission Directives 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC) and in 2015 (Commission Directives (EU) 2015/565 and (EU) 2015/566). They encourage the donation of tissues and cells for transplant purposes in the safeguard of public health. Another major aim of Directive 2004/23/EC is to guarantee recipients' safety in transplantation. Hence, measures for accreditation of establishments storing, preparing and distributing tissues and cells are required to be implemented in Members States' jurisdictions. In addition, adequate training is required for the personnel directly involved in such activities. Despite the adoption of a "full legislation, " the EU legal framework for cells cannot be seen as totally harmonized. In this article we first address the issues posed at the European level by the uses of human cells as therapeutic agent with regards to their qualification: body elements? Medicinal product? We study the ways to address these bioethical dilemmas at an EU level. Then we discuss the impact of this qualification in terms of safety through the definition of safety's measures and their limits regarding the directive's scope. We conclude with the emergence of an "ethical safety".